Stitch in time: A look at California prison uniforms through the years
Uniforms have evolved since the first prison was founded in the 1850s. From left are representations from 1900, the 1920s and the 1970s with Joyce Zink working at Folsom State Prison.
By Don Chaddock, Inside CDCR editor Office of Public and Employee Communications
There was little difference in clothing worn by custody staff and inmates during the 1850s at San Quentin. Over the decades, that changed, mostly at the urging of the prison directors. Inmate clothing and uniforms for prison staff have evolved since the first inmates stepped aboard the prison ships in 1851. As part of our Unlocking History series, Inside CDCR has compiled photos from the prison’s beginnings through more modern times.
1850s and 1860s: The first two decades
When inmates were housed aboard ships and later in cell blocks at San Quentin, they wore the same clothing as when they were arrested. This caused confusion during escape attempts and made it much easier for inmates to simply walk away from their job assignments. According to reports at the time, it was difficult to tell the difference between inmates and staff since neither wore uniforms.
1870s and 1880s: San Quentin passes quarter-century mark
1890s: Dapper duds for staff
Other than the styles changing, clothing worn by correctional staff appeared much as it did 40 years earlier. The inmates now wore prison stripes, modeled after the prison system in New York. Youth offenders wore military-style uniforms.
1900s: A new century
Technology began to play a larger role in the two states prisons at San Quentin and Folsom. Everything from transportation to kitchen appliances saw major overhauls. Female inmates were still housed at San Quentin, overseen by a matron, while the state’s two youth facilities continued to focus on a military style of rehabilitation.
1920s and 1930s: The beginning of standards
Road construction honor camps were the start of today’s fire camps. At the time, inmates constructed highways in the mountains and along the coast. Under the direction of reform minded wardens and state officials, a separate prison was opened in Tehachapi to house female offenders.
1940s and 1950s: Department overhaul
With the return of soldiers after World War II, and the 1944 reorganization of the Department of Corrections, more professional standards were put in place. The Guard classification was changed to Correctional Officer and more extensive training was emphasized.
1960s: Enhancing the fire camp program
The 1960s saw the activation of two new facilities specifically designed to train offenders for conservation camps. California Correctional Center opened in 1963 while Sierra Conservation Center activated two years later.
1970s: Women and men work side-by-side in prison
Since women were being hired to work in men’s prisons, they needed uniforms. Some versions included skirts while other female uniforms included slacks.
1980s and 1990s: Uniforms updated for modern workforce
2000s and 2010s: New name and an overhauled department
With the new millennium, the department changed its name to CDCR, adding Rehabilitation. There was also a major reorganization, including making the department its own agency. CDCR’s patches were redesigned to reflect the name change. Over the course of roughly 170 years, the department has evolved, and so have the uniforms.